The Organization of Computer System


The Organization of Computer System

A system is a collection of items bound together by well defined relationships. In this sense, a computer is referred to as a system. By organization we mean listing the constituents and bring out their inter-relationship. We will restrict our attention to overall organization of digital computers, in brief and only those components which are present in almost every computer, in some form or the other.

The basic elements of computer systems are Hardware, Software, Human ware and firmware.


Hardware of a computer involves physical units of the machine with its electronic and mechanical functional parts. The layout of these functional parts is called the architecture of computer, showing how they are connected together.


 Software is as vital for effective use of computer as Hardware. Instructions are to be given to the computer for doing a particulate job. A set of such instruction to be executed sequentially to perform a specific task is called a program. A collection of programs is referred to as software.

Human Ware:

A group of personnel associated with various stages, from manufactured to actual use, of a computer is known as Human ware. These are actually interfaced between a machine and the end user. It might include the following personnel.

Sr. No




Hardware Engineers

Design, Fabrication & Maintenance of Computer System.


System Analyst

Studies the problem and prepares the solution and program specifications.



Writes Computer Programs.



Operates the Computer.


Software which available as part of hardware is called as firmware. Computer can retrieve and use this software but cannot modify it easily. These are the programs stored in ROM chip. This ROM chip is affixed on the motherboard of the computer. Thus, it is a part of CPU.

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