Role of Various Genetic Concepts and Principles in Crop Improvement


Role of Various Genetic Concepts and Principles in Crop Improvement 

1) Mitosis:

Essential for normal growth and development of living organisms. Leads to production of identical progeny in asexually propagated crop.

2) Meiosis:

It generates variability through recombination and segregation of genes, also maintains chromosome number constant in a species.

3) Chromosome Number:

Useful in transfer of genes from one species to another and structure development of hybrid and development of alien addition and alien substitution lines.

4) Structural Chromosomal:

Play an important role in formation of new species and change transfer of small chromosome segment from one species to another.

5) Numerical Chromosomal:

It is useful in inter specific and inter generic gene transfer, overcoming sterility in such hybrids, conservation of heterosis, development of new crop species etc.

6) Gene Interaction:

It helps in the study of inheritance and gene transfer. Sometimes, it leads to production of new phenotypes.

7) Linkage:

Linkage affects genetic variances, genetic correlation between characters and efficiency of selection.

8) Chrossing- over:
It releases genetic variability by forming new gene combinations. Variability is essential for improvement by selection.

9) Pleiotropy:

It affects the efficiency of selection. If the side effects of a gene are desirable, it helps in crop improvement and vice versa.

10) Penetrance and Expressivity:

Help in selection of elite types in the breeding population.

11) Cytoplasmic Inheritance:

It helps in the development of cytoplasmic male sterility for use in development of hybrids. Also adds to variability through mutation of plasma genes. i.e Chloroplast and mitochondria DNA.

12) Mutations:

They are useful in improving yield, quality, resistance to biotic and abiotic factors, generating new variability developing male sterility , overcoming self incompatibility etc.

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