Budding is the vegetative method of plant propagation and can be defined as “ an art of insertion of a single mature bud in to the stem of the rootstock in such way that the union takes place and the combination continues to grow. It is grafting of a single individual bud instead of whole bud stick on scion as in done in case of grafting.
There are several techniques or methods of insertion of bud in to the root stock. The adoption of any of the methods like grafting depends upon the plants to be budded, situation, facilities and source available etc.
Different Techniques of Methods of Budding:
I) Shield Budding:
This is the methods of budding in which a single bud with a little wood or without wood is taken but from the scion plant and is given a shape of ‘shield ‘before it is inserted into the root stock. It is done in following three ways: shield budding by ‘ T’ methods.
A. Shield Budding by T method:
i) Selection of Bud Wood or Bud Stock:
Fairly well matured, round bud stick of pencil thickness and of pest season’s growth, brownish color, having dormant plumy buds is selected from the desired tree. It must in sap following condition. The leaves are removed from the bud to avoid injurities to the axillary buds.
ii) Selection of Stock Plant:
Vigorous growing root stock seedling with pencil thickness having height of about 1 ½ to 2 feet is selected. The seedling should be in free sap flowing condition.
iii) Removal of Bark from the Stalk Plant:
on selected seedling ( root stock ) at the height of about ( 1 ½ inches to 2 inches from ground level ) vertical cut followed by a horizontal cut across the top at right angle is made carefully with budding knife. The cuts may be depending upon the wood.
iv) Removal of Bud:
From the selected bud stick a plumpy bud is taken out carefully with wood by taking a v ½ inch below the bud . The wood is then removed from the bud along with portion of bark is given a shape like shield.
V) Inserting the Bud:
The flaps of bark on either sides of the cut on the stock plant are loosened with very portion of budding knife. And kept ready to receive bud. The bud is then inserted from the top of the cut and pushed downward beneath the bark, and is held in position.
vi) Bandaging :
To bring about a firm cambial contact, the operated portion is tied with banana spot or polythene strip keeping the growing point of bud exposed.
Under the normal condition union taken in about 5 weeks. After the successful union, the bud sprouts or new shoots comes out and bud grows vigorously. The portion of stalk above the union is then cut off step by step and bandage is removed. When the new shoots develop at its vigorous and the bud graft is hardened in the nursery for 6 to 8 months, it becomes ready for permanent plantation.
B) Shield Budding by ‘I’ Method:
It is adopted where a great deal of rains occur. Water running down the stem of the root stock. After in case of the ‘ T’ cut soaks under the bud and causes decay of the shield piece of bud. Under such condition and ‘inverted’ T budding may give better results, since it is more likely to the below the bark inform running water.
The technique required in this method is same as that in T method except that the incision on the stock has the transceivers ( cross ) is taken on root stock and it is bent so that the bark become loose. Then the bud is inserted and tied firmly with sutali. Union takes place within two to three weeks.
C) Simple Shield Budding by Insertion Method:
A simple length wise incision ( cut ) is taken on root stock and it is bent so that the bark become loose. Then the bud is inserted and tied firmly with sutali. Union takes place within two to three weeks.
II) Patch Budding: (Mango):
Patch budding is somewhat slower and more difficult to perform than T budding. But is widely and successfully used on the plants which got thick bark. The patch of bark is removed from the stem of the root stock. Then the patch of bud of exactly the same size is removed from the bud stock taken from desired tree and fitted on the root stock exposed area. Polythene film is tied to protect same. Separating and October are considerable to rather most suitable months for patch budding in mango.
III) Flute Budding:
This method makes use of the ring of tissues adjoin the bud relatively thick barked tree thicker than 1 cm. and in active stage of are commonly budded by this method. It is successfully used in Ber and Cashewnunt trees.
On the bark of root stock two horizontal cuts about ‘1 ½ to 2’ apart are made to the extent of about 3/ 4 of the diameter of the stem. Vertical cuts connecting the horizontals cuts at both the ends are mode and semi circular bark is removed. The scion is prepared by repeating the same methods on the bud stack and the bud accompanying with flute of bark is placed against the corresponding cut portion of the stock. After this typing is attended in usual ways. All other operation are also similar to those in shield budding.
IV) Ring Budding:
The nature and method rendered its usefulness only to small stocks of not more than ¾ to 1 diameter. This is more or less an extension of flute method. Budding operation is performed when the plant is in sap flowing condition. A complete (1 ½ to 2) ring of bark is removed around the stem of the stock in order to from matrix. A complete ring of bark of the same with a prominent, plumy, healthy bud is removed from bud stick when placed on stock; it extends all around the stock. After placing the ring in position typing is done in usual manner, failure of the bud to unite, result in loss of terminal portion of stock above the ringed portion.
G) Forket Budding:
In Maharashtra state a fair degree of success has been achieved in mango by this method. The favorable season for operation is July to sept.
The selection of the bud sticks as well as the root stock is the same as that in the shield budding. At the height of about 9 to12 from the ground level horizontal cut is taken on the root stock and then two vertical cuts from the either end of the horizontal cut extending downwards are taken and a flap of bark is pooled out exposing a rectangular portion of about 1 to 2 on the root stock. A rectangular piece of bark along with a matured primly bud, of the same size, ( 1 *2 ) is removed from the selected bud stick. This piece of bark is then fitted on the exposed portion on root stock and secured well. The panel of bark is then released to its original position and tied by sutali is done in a usual way. The manuring, watering of the root stock is carried out as and when required.
After about 15 days the bandage is removed. The panel of bark is pooled out again and the inside is observed. If the bud shown the sign of sprouting, the panel of bark is removed by taking horizontal incision the downside of its on the root stock and the bud is again bandage, keeping exposed the growing point in a usual way. If the bud does not show the sign of sprouting the panel of bark is released to its original position and bandage is done in a usual way. After 15 days same procedure is followed.
Within 3 to 5 weeks from the operation the buds sprouts. When the shoot coming from the bud grows vigorously the terminal shoot of the root stock is removed or cut off in two to three steps as is deon in the case of shield budding. The after cases are the same as those are in case of the methods.
Formation of Graft Union:
i) Freshly cut scion tissue is brought into intimate with freshly cut rootstock tissue in such a manner that the regions of each are in close proximity. Temperature and humidity condition must be such as to promote activity in the newly be posed and surrounding cells. Temperature I n the range of activity in the range of 45 to 90 would be conductive to rapid growth. The spring months are usually favorable when cambium region of the graft union should be kept at a high level so that the thin- walled, turgid parenchymatous cells may not desiccated and dried.
ii) The outer exposed layers or cells in the cambia region or both scion and stock, parenchymatous cells in the soon intermingle and interlock this is commonly called as callus tissue. In grafting scion on the established stocks, the stock produces most of the callus, taking major part in filling up the gaps between the components. These parenchymatous cells, composting the spongy callus tissue fill the space between the two components or stock and scion, becoming interlocks and providing some mechanical support as well as allowing for soak passage of water and nutrients from the stock into the scion.
iii) Certain cells of the newly formed callus which are in line with the cambium layer of the intact scion differentiated into new cambium cells.
iv) These new cambium cells produce new vascular tissue, xylem, towards the inside and phloem wares the outside, thus establishing a vascular connection between the scion and rootstock, a requisite for a successful graft union, the newly formed camila sheath in the callus bridge begins typical cambium activity, layering own new xylem and phloem along with original vascular cambium of the stock and the scion, on through the life of the plant.
The new production of xylem and phloem and the establishment or vascular connection between the scion and stock must occur before much new shoot growth takes place from buds on the scion, otherwise the enlarging leaf surface on the scions will have little or no water supply to offset the loss by transpiration and the scion will quickly desiccated and die.