Principles of Agronomy and Agricultural Meteorology


Principles of Agronomy: Agronomy is the branch of agricultural science that focuses on studying and improving crop production and management. It encompasses various principles that guide agricultural practices. Here are some key principles of agronomy:

  1. Crop Selection: Selecting the right crop species and varieties suitable for a particular region is crucial. Factors such as climate, soil type, market demand, and agronomic practices should be considered during crop selection.
  2. Crop Rotation: Crop rotation involves the systematic sequence of different crops on the same land over a period of time. It helps in preventing the buildup of pests, diseases, and nutrient imbalances, improves soil fertility, and reduces the need for chemical inputs.
  3. Soil Management: Proper soil management practices are essential for optimizing crop growth. This includes soil testing, nutrient management, organic matter addition, soil conservation measures, erosion control, and irrigation management.
  4. Crop Nutrition: Providing adequate nutrients to crops is crucial for their growth and productivity. Fertilizer application based on soil nutrient analysis, balanced nutrient ratios, and appropriate timing are important aspects of crop nutrition.
  5. Weed Management: Weed control is essential to prevent competition for resources between crops and weeds. Strategies include cultural practices, mechanical methods (like plowing and hand-weeding), and judicious use of herbicides.
  6. Pest and Disease Management: Effective pest and disease management are crucial for minimizing yield losses. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques, including biological control, cultural practices, and judicious use of pesticides, are employed to manage pests and diseases sustainably.
  7. Water Management: Optimal water management is critical, particularly in areas with limited water resources. Efficient irrigation techniques, such as drip irrigation or sprinkler systems, help minimize water wastage and improve water use efficiency.

Agricultural Meteorology: Agricultural meteorology deals with the study of weather and climate patterns and their influence on agricultural production and management. It plays a vital role in optimizing crop growth and productivity. Here are some key aspects of agricultural meteorology:

  1. Weather Monitoring: Regular monitoring of weather conditions, including temperature, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation, helps farmers make informed decisions regarding crop management practices.
  2. Crop Phenology: Agricultural meteorology studies the relationship between weather variables and crop development stages. Understanding crop phenology helps farmers determine the optimal timing for various activities like planting, irrigation, fertilization, and harvesting.
  3. Climate Risk Assessment: Agricultural meteorology helps assess climate-related risks such as droughts, floods, heatwaves, and frost events. Farmers can utilize this information to plan for potential risks and adopt appropriate mitigation strategies.
  4. Crop Modeling: Meteorological data is used in crop modeling to simulate and predict crop growth, yield, and quality. Crop models help farmers optimize resource management, predict yield potential, and assess the impact of climate change on agriculture.
  5. Agro-advisories: Agricultural meteorology provides the basis for generating agro-advisories. These advisories provide timely recommendations to farmers regarding the optimal time for sowing, irrigation, fertilization, pest and disease management, and other farm operations based on weather forecasts and crop models.
  6. Climate Change and Adaptation: Agricultural meteorology plays a crucial role in studying the impacts of climate change on agriculture. It helps in developing climate change adaptation strategies and promoting resilient agricultural practices.

By integrating the principles of agronomy and agricultural meteorology, farmers can make informed decisions to optimize crop production, minimize environmental impacts, and adapt to changing climatic conditions.


  1. Agriculture – Definition – Importance and scope – Branches of agriculture –
    Evolution of man and agriculture – Development of scientific agriculture – National
    and International Agricultural Research Institutes.
  2. Indian agriculture – Indian economy – National income – per capita income –
    Agricultural income in GDP – Women in agriculture and empowerment
  3. History of agricultural development in the world and India. Agriculture heritage –
    Agriculture in ancient India
  4. Stages of agriculture development – Era of civilization- Importance of Neolithic
  5. Chronology of Agricultural technology development in India
  6. Kautilya’s Arthasasthra – Sangam literature – rainfall prediction – ITK -Tamil
  7. Agronomy – definition – meaning and scope. Agro-climatic zones of India and
    Tamil Nadu – Agro ecological zones of India
  8. Crops and major soils – Classification – Economic and agricultural importance in
    India and Tamil Nadu
  9. Factors affecting crop production – climatic – edaphic – biotic- physiographic and
    socio economic factors
  10. Tillage – Definition – objectives – types of tillage – modern concepts of tillage –
    main field preparation
  11. Seeds – Seed rate – Sowing methods – Germination – Crop stand establishment –
    Planting geometry
  12. Role of manures and fertilizers in crop production – agronomic interventions for
    enhancing FUE – Inter cultivation – Thinning – Gap filling and other intercultural
  13. Irrigation – Time and methods – Modern techniques of irrigation – Drainage and its
  14. Planting Geometry and its Effect on Growth and Yield
    15. Cropping pattern and cropping system – Intensive cropping- Sustainable agriculture –
  15. Organic / eco-friendly agriculture – Dry farming – Concepts and principles
  16. Agro-climatic zones of India
  17. Agro meteorology
  18. Weather and climate, micro-climate
  19. Weather elements and their influence on different crops
  20. Monsoon
  21. Clouds
  22. Weather aberrations
  23. Weather forecasting
  24. Weather modification -Artificial rain making and cloud seeding
  25. Remote sensing.
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